Koreans Abroad
For many years, Koreans emigrated to Manchuria in large numbers.001001 Annual Report, pp. 16-22.닫기 Much of this movement was voluntary, the emigrants wishing to escape from Japanese rule and hoping to find greater freedom and prosperity.002002 McKenzie, op. cit., pp. 202-203.닫기 After the beginning of World War II the movement took on a largely compulsory character, since the Japanese than controlled Manchuria and felt the need for an increased supply of labor there.003003 Interview with Dr. Har, 29 September 1945.닫기 In 1938 the number of Koreans in Manchuria was believed to exceed one million;004004 Annual Report, p. 16.닫기 their chief occupation was farming.005005 GraJdanzev, op. cit., pp. 81-82.닫기 Some of them were undesirables; after a time the Chinese came to prevent their presence and mistreated them.006006 Annual Report., pp. 16-17.닫기
There was also some migration of Koreans to Siberia, where many of them worked on collective farms and took an active part in political and social life. The Koreans in China fell into two main classes, those who had come in the wake of the Japanese armies as traders or camp followers, and those who had gone to join the Chinese forces.007007 GraJdanzev, op. cit., p. 82, 278.닫기 The number of Koreans in Siberia was estimated to be 200,000 in 1938, and of those in China 50,000. A total of about 7,000 made their way to Hawaii and America.008008 Annual Report, pp. 21-22.닫기
The most significant movement of all was the migration of Koreans to Japan.009009 The Annual Report does not mention this movement.닫기 It was stated in 1944 that "There are now more Koreans in Japan than Japanese in Korea."010010 Grajdanzev, op. cit., p. 76.닫기 The extent of this movement, which was not publicized by the Japanese, is difficult to determine; figures range from more than one million011011 Ibld., p. 81.닫기 to five million.012012 Pan, Hyun Sik, chairman of the Relief Society for Korean Refugees Abroad, report to the MG civil Administrator, 30 September 1945 [In files of displaced persons office, Foreign Affaire Section, Secretariat, Military Government].닫기 A more probable figure is 3,800,000.013013 Interview with 1st Lt. W. J. Cane, Displaced persons office, Foreign Affairs Section, 15 October 1945.닫기 The migration was relatively a recent phenomenon; the Japanese considered it a measure in the total war effort. In spite of the contribution which the Koreans thus made, they were on the whole badly treated by the Japanese population. The Koreans performed agricultural labor, worked in mines, and did other unskilled labor.014014 Grajdanzev, op. cit., p. 81.닫기 120,000 of them worked as coal mines in Kyushu and Hokkaido.015015 [Foreign Affaire Section, Displaced persons Office], Memorandum, "Measures to induce Korean Miners to continue work in Japan," 17 November 1945 [In files of Displaced persons Office, Foreign Affairs Section, Secretariat, Military Government].닫기
In 1944 it was said that "At least 10 percent of the Korean population is now earning its bread abroad."016016 Grajdanzev, op. cit., p. 81.닫기 In general their lot was not happy; they "hold no official positions, enjoy no subsidies or grants, and very often would be more happy if Japanese ’protection' overlooked them."017017 Ibid., p. 83.닫기
Like many other conquered countries, Korea had a government in exile, which claimed to be the oldest, institution of that type in the world. It was organized in Shanghai after the suppression of the independence movement of 1919.018018 Ibid., p. 67.닫기 In 1980 Rhee, Sung Man was elected its first president;019019 7th Infantry Division, 7th CIC Detachment, "A Study of the Present Political Situation," 4 October 1945, p. 3 [In historical file].닫기 as a young man, he had come under Western influences, become a Christian, and had taken a leading part in an independence movement in 1894.020020 McKenzie, op. cit., pp. 70-76, p. 303 gives an outline of Rhee’s career until 1919.닫기 His liberal sympathies brought down on his head the wrath of the Korean king, and he had to leave the country in 1895. From then until 1909 he studied at Yale and Princeton Universities in the United States and became acquainted with Woodrow Wilson, who was then President of Princeton. A brief stay in Korea from 1909 to 1911 convinced him that his ideals were incompatible with Japanese methods, and he returned to America.021021 "Present Political Situation," p. 3.닫기
Dr. Rhee’s two closest associates were Kim, Kyu Sik and Kim, Koo.022022 Ibid., pp. 3-4.닫기 The Provisional Government was informally recognized by Chiang Kai Shek, who lent financial support.023023 Interview with MaJ. G. B. Enders, Foreign Affairs Section, 12 December 1945.닫기 Its chief demand was for the complete independence of Korea.024024 300. Bland op. cit., pp. 200-201.닫기 It made use of communistic as well as nationalistic elements,025025 Interview with Dr. Lee, 30 September 1945.닫기 but Dr. Rhee rejected several overtures from Lenin and gained a large measure of unpopularity with both the Korean communists026026 "Present Political Situation," p. 3.닫기 and Russia.027027 XXIV Corps G-2 Periodic Report No. 45, 25 October 1945, Incl. No. 2.닫기 After the beginning of the China Incident the Provisional Government retreated to Chungking, where it set up headquarters; from there it kept a force in the field against the Japanese.028028 Grajdanzev, op. cit., p. 67, XXIV Corps G-2 Periodic Report No. 44, 24 October 1945, p. 3.닫기 While he himself led an exile government, General Charles De Gaulle extended de facto recognition to the Provisional Government; none of the other powers did so.029029 Interview with Maj. Enders, 12 December 1945.닫기 While it was in exile the Provisional Government was a sort of Mecca for patriotic Koreans: nevertheless, its importance set in motion a process of slow dissolution, some of the members going to Nanking, some to Manchuria, some to the United States, and a few to Russia.030030 Interview with Dr. Lee, 30 September 1945.닫기 In spite of its practical weakness and with no formal standing in international diplomacy, the Provisional Government continued to enjoy in the minds of many Koreans the status of the rightful government of their country.031031 XXIV Corps G-2 Periodic Report No. 75, 24 November 1945, p. 3.닫기 Dr. Rhee was widely known as the "Sun Yat Son of Korea."032032 XXIV Corps G-2 Periodic Report No. 4, 14 September 1946, p. 4.닫기 Nevertheless, as the men who had been connected with the independence movement of 1919 died one by one, some persons in Korea came to feel that the Provisional Government had lost contact with reality and had ceased to be truly representative of the people.033033 XXIV Corps G-2 Weekly Summary No. 7, 30 October 1945, p. 5.닫기
The Provisional Government was the best known and most important of the organizations formed by Koreans abroad; of such persons in general, "One may say that before 1942 the Koreans in exile showed a marked inclination to divide and subdivide into small factions and to disagree perpetually among themselves. However, this is inevitable under conditions of exile and harsh oppression at home."034034 GraJdanzev, op. cit., p. 279.닫기 The full extent of the Korean tendency toward disunity will appear later in these pages. A number of revolutionary groups were formed during the period when Japan ruled Korea;035035 Records of several of them can be found in the files of the Research Subsection, office of public Opinion, public Information Section, Secretariat of Military Government.닫기 in about 1936 nine of them formed the Korean National Revolutionary Party, and a call went out for Koreans to go to China and receive military training.036036 Grajdanzev, op, cit., p. 67.닫기
The military activities of exiled Koreans were not confined to organizing resistance; they also joined existing forces. Some Koreans served as officers in the Red Army.037037 Ibid., p. 82.닫기 A sizeable contingent of Koreans, perhaps a full division, fought with the Chinese Communists.038038 Interview with Dr. Har, 29 September 1945, See also XXIV Corps G-2 Periodic Report No. 13, 23 September 1945., p. 3.닫기 One guerrilla leader, General Kim, Il Sawng, fought against the Japanese in Manchuria during World War II and is said to have been decorated by Marshal Josef Stalin. 039039 XXIV Corps G-2 Weekly Summary No. 14, 18 December 1945, p. 5.닫기
Rhee, Sung Man founded a political organization about the year 1910; it was called the Society of Like-Minded People, and had its headquarters in Honolulu. It was led by men from southern Korea, and its goal was independence. At about the same time, Mr. Ahn, Chang Ho founded a nonpolitical society (its Korean name was Heung Sa Tan) with headquarters in Los Angeles; its purpose was to train young Koreans for positions of leadership, and it had members in the Hawaiian Islands, Manchuria, China, and Korea itself, as well as in the United States. Its leaders came chiefly from northern Korea. Mr. Ahn died in a Korean prison in 1938.040040 Interview with Dr. Har, 29 September 1945; interview with Dr. Lee, 30 September 1945.닫기
Under the terms of the treaty of annexation in 1910, the Korean royal family were granted titles and monetary grants.041041 Annual Report. p. 6, 222,닫기 They remained for a time in Seoul in even greater idleness than before.042042 Brown, op. cit., p. 207, 367. * See above, p. 22.[각주는 유실된 52쪽에 있는 각주이다.]닫기 The old emperor Yi, Hiung, who had abdicated in 1907, died in 1919, and his funeral was the occasion for the beginning of the independence movement of that year, already described. His son Yi, Chok, who had been the last of the Yi emperors, died in 1928. Thereupon his brother, Yi, Kun, who had been educated in Japan and had married a Japanese princess, became head of the family. Although a Japanese source states that the royal couple made frequent visits to Korea,043043 Annual Report, p. 49.닫기 Prince Yi was said to be living in Japan in 1945 with no desire to return to Korea.044044 XXIV Corps G-2 Periodic Report No. 6, 16 September, 1945, p. 3,닫기 At the same time a small royalist party was working in his native land on his behalf,045045 Ibld.닫기 and the Empress Dowager who had been Yi, Yiung's last wife, was living in the royal palace in Seoul.046046 Historian's Journal, 23 September 1945.닫기

註 001
Annual Report, pp. 16-22.
註 002
McKenzie, op. cit., pp. 202-203.
註 003
Interview with Dr. Har, 29 September 1945.
註 004
Annual Report, p. 16.
註 005
GraJdanzev, op. cit., pp. 81-82.
註 006
Annual Report., pp. 16-17.
註 007
GraJdanzev, op. cit., p. 82, 278.
註 008
Annual Report, pp. 21-22.
註 009
The Annual Report does not mention this movement.
註 010
Grajdanzev, op. cit., p. 76.
註 011
Ibld., p. 81.
註 012
Pan, Hyun Sik, chairman of the Relief Society for Korean Refugees Abroad, report to the MG civil Administrator, 30 September 1945 [In files of displaced persons office, Foreign Affaire Section, Secretariat, Military Government].
註 013
Interview with 1st Lt. W. J. Cane, Displaced persons office, Foreign Affairs Section, 15 October 1945.
註 014
Grajdanzev, op. cit., p. 81.
註 015
[Foreign Affaire Section, Displaced persons Office], Memorandum, "Measures to induce Korean Miners to continue work in Japan," 17 November 1945 [In files of Displaced persons Office, Foreign Affairs Section, Secretariat, Military Government].
註 016
Grajdanzev, op. cit., p. 81.
註 017
Ibid., p. 83.
註 018
Ibid., p. 67.
註 019
7th Infantry Division, 7th CIC Detachment, "A Study of the Present Political Situation," 4 October 1945, p. 3 [In historical file].
註 020
McKenzie, op. cit., pp. 70-76, p. 303 gives an outline of Rhee’s career until 1919.
註 021
"Present Political Situation," p. 3.
註 022
Ibid., pp. 3-4.
註 023
Interview with MaJ. G. B. Enders, Foreign Affairs Section, 12 December 1945.
註 024
300. Bland op. cit., pp. 200-201.
註 025
Interview with Dr. Lee, 30 September 1945.
註 026
"Present Political Situation," p. 3.
註 027
XXIV Corps G-2 Periodic Report No. 45, 25 October 1945, Incl. No. 2.
註 028
Grajdanzev, op. cit., p. 67, XXIV Corps G-2 Periodic Report No. 44, 24 October 1945, p. 3.
註 029
Interview with Maj. Enders, 12 December 1945.
註 030
Interview with Dr. Lee, 30 September 1945.
註 031
XXIV Corps G-2 Periodic Report No. 75, 24 November 1945, p. 3.
註 032
XXIV Corps G-2 Periodic Report No. 4, 14 September 1946, p. 4.
註 033
XXIV Corps G-2 Weekly Summary No. 7, 30 October 1945, p. 5.
註 034
GraJdanzev, op. cit., p. 279.
註 035
Records of several of them can be found in the files of the Research Subsection, office of public Opinion, public Information Section, Secretariat of Military Government.
註 036
Grajdanzev, op, cit., p. 67.
註 037
Ibid., p. 82.
註 038
Interview with Dr. Har, 29 September 1945, See also XXIV Corps G-2 Periodic Report No. 13, 23 September 1945., p. 3.
註 039
XXIV Corps G-2 Weekly Summary No. 14, 18 December 1945, p. 5.
註 040
Interview with Dr. Har, 29 September 1945; interview with Dr. Lee, 30 September 1945.
註 041
Annual Report. p. 6, 222,
註 042
Brown, op. cit., p. 207, 367. * See above, p. 22.[각주는 유실된 52쪽에 있는 각주이다.]
註 043
Annual Report, p. 49.
註 044
XXIV Corps G-2 Periodic Report No. 6, 16 September, 1945, p. 3,
註 045
Ibld.
註 046
Historian's Journal, 23 September 1945.